white line disease treatment in donkeys

There is also a possibility that obesity predisposes to PPID, but this has not been confirmed. Donkey&Mule Info Nutrition/Management Behavior/Tack Management Breeding/Reproduction Blood Chemistry/Disease Stories/Articles The Donkey Sanctuary Articles Ask your mule or donkey question; Shop Membership Online Mule/Donkey Registration LEVA/SSA Instead you should pad the entire sole using thick cotton wool and bandages. Laminitis may develop gradually, with the only sign being laminitis rings on the hooves, or it could be associated with seasonal turnout to pasture, and present as severe recurrent painful laminitis. NSAIDs can be used to encourage relaxation of the tendons. Hyperlipaemia is a serious condition caused by too much fat in the blood. If the insulin level tests high, your veterinarian may confirm the diagnosis with a Combined Glucose-Insulin Test. Others are soft nodules under the skin, and some start off as, Strangles is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection caused by. As such, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs when compared with horses. As if biting insects weren’t troublesome enough for donkeys, it is possible that donkey residents may have a hypersensitivity or “sweet itch” to insect bites. In cases where vision is limited, it is important to ensure the affected donkey is in a safe place without environmental dangers. If that happens, it may cause pain or infections. (Back to the top), Sarcoids are common skin tumors and can be problematic to treat. Contact your veterinarian for the best course of action. Cataracts may appear as an initial grayness, or bubbles or cracks in the lens. TREATMENT If you want to ensure early disease recognition, you’ll have to spend a lot of time with the donkeys in your care, so slight changes and symptoms are more apparent to you. Signs of dehydration are not always obvious as donkeys tend to cope better with dehydration than horses due to their adaptation to arid climates. Some are crusty and wart-like and cause hair-loss and thickened skin around the lesion. It is important to seek veterinary treatment if a donkey resident has Equine Flu as it weakens their immune system, making them vulnerable to secondary infections. On occasion, a crack may run the full length of the hoof. Cryptorchidism is a condition where one or both testes fails to descend from the abdomen into the scrotal sac. B Gone White Line Treatment works by stopping pathogens from further damaging healthy hoof wall tissue. An abscess can be caused when an infection or foreign body stimulates the accumulation of white blood cells. They make apply a poultice to draw out the abscess to the surface. (Back to the top). It is important to treat the underlying conditions and associated symptoms. Be sure to wear gloves and dispose of these as well, and wash up thoroughly before coming into contact with other donkeys or horses. The healing donkey should be kept on clean, dry ground until fully recovered. Foot trimming Donkeys tend to grow more heel and sole than horses; the heels require careful rasping and the sole must be pared off by the farrier. Unfortunately, the first indication that a donkey may have PPID is a severe attack of laminitis, or if a donkey suffers from recurrent bouts of laminitis. A veterinarian may prescribe pain medicine and give recommendations for trimming the hoof. 3. (Back to the top), Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis spores, which can lie dormant in soil across the world for many years. Be sure to closely monitor their appetite and communicate with your veterinarian if they are not eating. Treatment of white line disease is greatly dependent upon the severity and progression. After handling infected animals, wash your hands, clean and disinfect your boots, and change clothes. You might see a donkey stretch themselves out in a standing position if they are extremely uncomfortable. This rupturing can expel surprising amounts of pus, depending on the size of the abscess. Complete hoof avulsions have a poor prognosis. Donkeys are also more susceptible to white line disease, the deterioration of the white line by a combination of bacteria and fungi. If you are new to caring for donkeys, you may think they are like small horses and act similarly. If a donkey has experienced chronic limb pain while a hoof abscess has been treated, the disuse of the limb may cause the tendon to contract, pulling the pedal bone into a more upright position. Hoof cracks can be categorized as grass or sand cracks. The disease is more correctly termed ‘Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID).’. Ask them to take a sample of the pus to discover the type of bacteria causing the infection and dictate the type of antibiotics, if any, are required. The laminitic foot may require more frequent trimming and radiographs for monitoring. Banixx carries the following benefits: They tend to latch on around the groins, ears, and behind leg joints. As the white line joins the hard capsule of wall horn with the relatively flexible sole horn, it has to withstand considerable physical tensions. Make sure you dispose of any material that comes into contact with them as hazardous material. A squeeze bottle (like mustard comes in) is a good applicator. However, it has been reported that disease progression is more severe in donkeys, and these usually require antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment . Exposure is necessary to minimize the chance of infection. Then trim the hair around the abscess, disinfect the surface with an antiseptic, and make a low, small, vertical incision with a sharp and sterilized knife. The Donkey Sanctuary is a charity that will never turn away from a donkey in need. Treatment includes the use of anti-coccidial agents, such as ponazuril, and NSAIDs. White line disease is treated by debriding the area, exposing the fungus and bacteria to air when oxygen is its worst enemy. Overload of lush grasses or cereals and fruits, Lameness, especially when a donkey is turning in circles; shifting lameness when standing, Increased digital pulse in the feet (most easily palpable over either sesamoid bone at the level of the fetlock), Pain in the toe region when pressure is applied with hoof testers, Reluctant or hesitant gait (“walking on eggshells”), A “sawhorse stance,” with the front feet stretched out in front to alleviate pressure on the toes and the hind feet positioned under them to support the weight that their front feet cannot, Rings in hoof wall that become wider as they are followed from toe to heel, Widened white line, commonly called “seedy toe,” with occurrence of seromas (blood pockets) and/or abscesses, Dished hooves, which are the result of unequal rates of hoof growth (the heels grow at a faster rate than the rest of the hoof, resulting in an “Aladdin-slipper” appearance). Grass cracks start at the bottom of the hoof and crack upwards, while sand cracks start at the coronary band and crack downwards. Contact your veterinarian if you suspect Pigeon Fever. As you can imagine, this can cause severe pain and lameness, as well as infections and inflammation of the bone. Like thrush, white line disease is a fairly simple hoof ailment that is not terribly difficult to treat, provided it’s caught early. Be sure to closely monitor their appetite and communicate with your veterinarian if they are not eating. Dietary management of donkeys is especially important as they are prone to obesity and related disorders. Your veterinarian may recommend treating the donkey with an antibiotic. The more a farrier tries to patch or cover up the damage, the wetter and darker the environment becomes for the fungi, and they just get happier and more aggressive. Vaccinate donkeys routinely based on your veterinarian’s recommendations. Both testicles should be located within the scrotum when the male foal is born, although some surgeons advise waiting at least 18 months prior to cryptorchid surgery to allow ample time for the cryptorchid testicle to descend. If the club foot is chronic, trim the hoof regularly and keep the foot balanced. In severe cases, your farrier should work with a veterinarian to make sure that the work does not cause any instability to the hoof. Feed good quality forage and donkey specific proprietary foods. It could also develop into a more serious respiratory disorder if left untreated. Make sure you dispose of any material that comes into contact with them as hazardous material. White line disease is almost as prevalent as sole ulcer and can be just as difficult to treat satisfactorily. The healing donkey should be kept on clean, dry ground until fully recovered. Special care should be taken with older, younger or ill donkeys. Many have suffered from neglect before arriving at a sanctuary, and their hooves are proof of that. In the meantime, feed only hay grass until your veterinarian advises differently and move the afflicted donkey onto soft ground. Bacterial infections and trauma to the eye can also cause conjunctivitis. (Back to the top). Dirt will only push the crack further apart. In these case, the infection can grow into the deep tissues. But these treatments may not be necessary. Dished hooves, which are the result of unequal rates of hoof growth (the heels grow at a faster rate than the rest of the hoof, resulting in an "Aladdin-slipper" appearance). Clean the hooves daily, monitoring the integrity of the white line and the rest of hoof structures. You might see a donkey stretch themselves out in a standing position if they are extremely uncomfortable. Anthrax can quickly spread to other animals from the infected donkey, including humans. If a donkey or horse remains in a rainy environment, the dorsal (back) surfaces may become soaked with rain, increasing the likelihood of contracting rain scald. The treatment is to remove all dead and discolored material so new healthy horn can grow down. They rely on donations to continue providing for donkeys and mules worldwide. These progress to white or grey opacity, preventing light from being reflected from the retina. Treatment includes the use of anti-coccidial agents, such as ponazuril, and NSAIDs. The veterinarian will perform an examination in order to accurately diagnose the issue. Mike Wildenstein, certified journeyman farrier and Fellow of the Worshipful Company of Farriers of Great Britain, did his fellowship thesis on white line disease. It is commons to see outbreaks in the late summer and early fall when biting insect populations are at their peak. The white line is the softer, off-white horn that joins the wall horn with the sole horn. Gastric ulcers are lesions on the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Common organisms involved in these issues are. Contact your veterinarian if you suspect Pigeon Fever. (Back to the top). Special care should be taken with older, younger or ill donkeys. Symptoms can include stumbling, falling, weakness, muscle stiffness and tightness, muscle atrophy, and localized sweating. If caught early enough, white line disease is fairly easy to manage. The “stoic” nature of a donkey may mean the only signs of colic you observe are “dullness” and an unwillingness to eat. It is caused by a bacteria spread by other animals. (Back to the top). transform the quality of life of donkeys in the UK and abroad. the sole known as the white line or zone (Fig. Antibiotics are also often given to help prevent additional infections. These form pus and the system starts walling off the infection or foreign body with fibrous cells. Others are soft nodules under the skin, and some start off as alopecia with a crust surface. Abrasions are an easy way for this bacteria to enter the skin. (Back to the top), Because donkeys evolved in arid, inhospitable environments, their bodies are able to thrive on highly fibrous, poor quality food. While the virus triggers an immune response, it is not effective in eliminating the infection. The deeper the crack, the more likely you will see pain and lameness as the deeper cracks may become infected or pinch sensitive tissue. Dental disease – failure to chew food adequately resulting in a blockage of the gut: Ensure donkeys’ teeth are checked at least annually by a qualified equine dental technician or, Dental disease is more common in older donkeys. While is is common to see signs of Cushing’s disease in horses in the form of long, hairy coats, and excessive urinating and drinking, it is harder to see these signs in donkeys. Treating the crack involves stabilization of the crack and preventing it from becoming dirty or wet. If left untreated, the problem can heal and then show up again some time later. Luckily, there is an annual vaccination that can prevent WNV. White line disease may be diagnosed during a routine trimming when a farrier notices a small area of crumbly or powdery black or gray tissue at the white line. If the bursa is un-ruptured and not draining, treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents is recommended. This obscures the structures behind the lens. They may also lance the abscess and irrigate the wound (any abscess on the face or neck should be treated by a veterinarian to minimize risk of major bleeding). It may present with external abscesses, limb infections, or internal infections. They can cause symptoms including pain, loss of appetite, failure to thrive, and colic. In these cases, improper hoof trimming can also result in overgrown hooves. (Back to the top). There is a possibility that it can also be spread to canines too. Aging donkeys may also develop senile cataracts. Hoof cracks can be categorized as grass or sand cracks. If a donkey resident does have EMS, you will want to limit sugars and starches in their diet. Symptoms include less motion, laying down more often, weight loss, shabby coat, strange gait, and swollen joints. Healthy donkeys usually survive the infection. Strangles is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus equi bacteria. Copper sulfate is being used here by Mequon, Wis., farrier Red Renchin Among the most common problems farriers deal with are thrush and white line disease. White Line Disease is a widening of the white line, or a separation of the hoof wall from the sole. This procedure should not be painful but it may be necessary to remove a lot of hoof wall if the disease has progressed. To treat, shave or clip the affected area, apply diluted antiseptic, and leave the afflicted area open to the air to dry. Better yet, feed horses that way and PREVENT founder and white line disease. If you take in a donkey with severely overgrown hooves, you should get a radiograph to ascertain whether bone changes have occurred within the hoof. Although sarcoids are benign, they can can grow and become infected. It eats away at the tissues of the frog of the hoof and leaves a black slime. Unfortunately, there are scenarios where euthanasia may be the most compassionate option in grievous cases. (Back to the top). Affected donkeys typically do not give this disease to other animals or humans, but it can be spread by cows, goats, wild pigs, sheep, deer, and related animals to horses, donkeys, and humans. Some cataracts are congenital, while others are acquired. Consult your, Pick up manure from the paddock a minimum of twice per week, Reduce stress and ensure you ‘trickle feed’ the donkey. There are two types of laminitis: acute and chronic. Affected donkeys typically do not give this disease to other animals or humans, but it can be spread by cows, goats, wild pigs, sheep, deer, and related animals to horses, donkeys, and humans. Alternatively, if very dirty, the sole of the hoof and sulci of the frog can be washed with a solution of bleach (30ml/â„“ of water), dried and coated with gentian violet or an iodine-based foot spray.If an outbreak of white line disease occurs, a farrier should always be called in to assist as it may be necessary to cut away portions of diseased hoof wall in badly affected horses. Isolate any sick donkeys or horses and disinfect their environment. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a neurological condition affecting donkeys and other equines. It is caused by the protozoa. Dirt will only push the crack further apart. (Back to the top). If the club foot is chronic, trim the hoof regularly and keep the foot balanced. Remove loose scabs and dispose of them to prevent further infections. Cystitis or urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in equines. White line disease in donkeys and mules. In these cases it is vital that all the affected horn is removed to ensure the acrylic material bonds to healthy horn. Reading about health issues does not qualify you to diagnose your residents! There are many products on the market to … Horses may not even need time off if there is no severe damage to the hoof wall. (Back to the top). Talk to your veterinarian about the best options for future treatment, as the type of treatment will vary depending on the location, depth, and infection status of the crack. There are many cause of conjunctivitis, ranging from viral disease to fungal infections. Widened white line, commonly called "seedy toe," with occurrence of seromas (blood pockets) and/or abscesses. Signs of lice include itching and hair loss. You can start by applying a poultice – heated, moist cloth to the site of the abscess. The deeper the crack, the more likely you will see pain and lameness as the deeper cracks may become infected or pinch sensitive tissue. It can be spread through open wounds, mucous membranes by other equids and possibly by house, horn, and stable flies. Grass cracks start at the bottom of the hoof and crack upwards, while sand cracks start at the coronary band and crack downwards. (Back to the top), Cushing’s disease is a hormonal disorder that arises when the nerve supply to the pituitary gland becomes damaged. Complete hoof avulsions have a poor prognosis. Over time, the bursa may rupture and have an infectious looking discharge. They may also need a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement, on a veterinarian’s recommendation. They will also have lesions with greasy, scaly skin and hair loss. There is no vaccination either. Dietary management of donkeys is especially important as they are prone to obesity and related disorders. Unfortunately, cataracts are irreversible once formed. White line disease (Photo: Marike Haase) The treatment is to remove all dead and discolored material so new healthy horn can grow down. White line disease usually starts as a splitting of the hoof wall at the white line or as an infection around the nail holes. It can cause mild symptoms, but can be very serious and cause permanent damage to the nervous system and even death. White line disease is an opportunistic disease, meaning the pathogens take advantage of a weakened or compromised hoof wall, such as hoof wall separation caused by … These tensions and brusings are increased with turning and pushing behaviour on hard surfaces, especially if there are or sharp stones in the environment. Your veterinarian may recommend treating the donkey with an antibiotic. There are several species of mites that affect donkeys, Signs of mite infestations are severe itching, possibly causing the donkey to rub against objects, stamp their feet, or bite at themselves. Vaccinate donkeys routinely based on your veterinarian’s recommendations. However, if the amount of wall that has been removed is substantial, your vet or farrier may decide to refill the defect with acrylic material to give more stability to the hoof capsule. Be sure to wash your hands, clean and disinfect your boots, wear latex or plastic gloves, and change clothes between handling quarantined donkeys and other donkey residents. Once all the damaged horn has been removed, the hoof needs to be kept clean with daily hoof picking and brushing to remove as much organic matter as possible. They can cause inflammation of the brain in both equines and humans. It thrives in wet and muddy environments and is spread by carrier animals. Steroid treatment can help alleviate itching and inflammation. Donkeys are trickle feeders, meaning they need small amounts of food often. You may have to consider a grazing muzzle if they have access to a grassy pasture, as too much high-sugar grass can cause a problem. If you take in a donkey with severely overgrown hooves, you should get a radiograph to ascertain whether bone changes have occurred within the hoof. There are annual or semi-annual vaccinations available against EEE and WEE. A veterinarian may prescribe pain medicine and give recommendations for trimming the hoof. Ticks are another parasite affecting donkeys. It first appears as a crack or cavity which appears between the white line and the surface of the hoof. There is a 7-45 day incubation period before signs of the disease are observed. A donkey that has tetanus or lockjaw will die unless it receives an antitoxin injections within 24 hours of the injury. (Back to the top), Like most animals, donkeys can become prone to arthritis as they get older. When a UTI has spread to the kidneys it is called pyelonephritis. If that happens, it may cause pain or infections. Equine Flu is a contagious viral respiratory disease caused by various strains of the Influenza virus. So keep a close eye on them! While horses that contract lungworms can develop problematic respiratory issues, infected donkeys are clinically unaffected by lungworm infections. Sudden changes in diet, such as access to lush grass, or ingesting a large amount of concentrates. White line disease has recently been linked to both opportunistic and anaerobic (thriving in the absence of oxygen) fungal infections. Using sterile gloves, carefully squeeze out the excess pus and flush the wound with disinfectant. Maintaining good foot hygiene and regular foot care will help to prevent the occurrence of WLD. Treatment involves rest and careful observation to prevent secondary infections. Sadly, there is currently no cure. If you suspect a donkey is suffering from anthrax, you must contact your veterinarian immediately. For some donkeys, the hives or bumps will resolve themselves over a day or two. Horses who live with donkeys can also contract lungworms and develop respiratory issues, such as bronchitis, but are unlikely to pass the infection to another horse. It is important to keep you donkey well-hydrated and call a veterinarian to diagnose the issue and prescribe the appropriate treatment. (Back to the top). (Back to the top). Thrush is prevented by keeping a donkey’s feet clean and dry as much as possible. As a preventative measure, you should have a lab perform a fecal test on donkeys every three months to ensure that they are not facing a dangerous parasitic infection and have appropriate treatment policies in place for infected donkeys. It is passed by mosquitos from birds to equines or other animals. NSAIDs can be used to encourage relaxation of the tendons. This differs from horses’ feet where the sole naturally flakes off. This ultimately causes increased quantities of hormones to be released from the gland. Contact your veterinarian for the best course of action. The bacteria can activate and contaminate soil and grass in certain weather conditions, especially wet and cool weather followed by hot and dry weather. Symptoms of conjunctivitis include a reddened, inflamed membrane, and watery/mucousy discharge. Daily medication and bi-annual blood test are required for maintenance. The chemical can be any of the traditional off the shelf preparations: Nufoot, merthiolate, formalin, white lightning, and thrush medicines, etc. Much of the time these remedies will stop the progress of the disease. Talk to your veterinarian about the best options for future treatment, as the type of treatment will vary depending on the location, depth, and infection status of the crack. There is an annual vaccination for donkeys. In cases where vision is limited, it is important to ensure the affected donkey is in a safe place without environmental dangers. Some are crusty and wart-like and cause hair-loss and thickened skin around the lesion. Wet co… They are often associated with disorders that disrupt urinary flow. (Back to the top). These progress to white or grey opacity, preventing light from being reflected from the retina. However, if they are showing signs of laminitis, only exercise them on the advice of your veterinarian. Tetanus can be prevented by annual vaccinations. (Back to the top). A single testicle should never be removed if the other cannot be located; the animal may remain fertile and this could lead to serious welfare implications if mares and jennies are impregnated. The rise of white line disease has driven thousands of horse owners and farriers to natural hoof care. There are many factors that might cause ulcers to develop, including age, sex, temperament, exercise intensity, intermittent versus continuous feeding, stall confinement, high concentrate diets, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, parasites (Gasterophilus sp., Habronema muscae), Helicobacter spp., and other bacteria. This is not an exhaustive list of everything that can happen to a donkey, but can help you get a sense of what challenges a resident under your care may face in their lifetime. Mud fever is a collection of diseases that results in damage to the skin of the lower limbs. However, the Coggins test can help diagnose and control the disease. 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To survive ruptures, the bursa is un-ruptured and not draining, with... “ potbelly ” and lethargy veterinarian will perform an examination in order to accurately diagnose the issue prescribe... Spread to canines too by flushing and bandaging the area of … the laminitic foot may more! On a veterinarian ’ s appetite in the hoof affect a horse of any material that comes contact. Before arriving at a Sanctuary, and this may heal over, leaving a scab, or a foreign is! Are acquired hand walking or otherwise encouraging the donkey to walk is important to take small in! Bedding frequently, avoiding humidity and accumulation of faeces and urine, especially that... The Coggins test can help diagnose and control the disease the conjunctiva includes the use of anti-coccidial,! Or foreign body increased risk of developing laminitis potentially life-threatening condition that is not a disease, UV light toxin! 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A number of pesky parasites that can irritate your resident donkeys because PPID also body... Access to a low carb and sugar diet, such as dullness and decreased.. When compared with horses a horse of any material that comes into with! Our mailing list to receive the latest resources from the Open Sanctuary Project available against EEE WEE! Gait, and an increased density or opacity of an eye ’ s recommendations is often increased their. Increase the likelihood of them to prevent further infections is prevented by keeping donkey...

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